Charles II ble født 29. mai 1630 av Charles I og hans franske kone, Henrietta Maria, og døde 6. februar 1685. Her beskriver Jeff Aronson Charles sin siste sykdom og antyder at hans død ble fremskyndet av legene hans.
Etter det endelige nederlaget til royalistene i slaget ved Worcester i 1651, flyktet den unge prins Charles til Frankrike, hvor han ble til restaureringen av monarkiet i 1660. Han ble kronet til konge på St. Geroge’s Day, 23. april 1661.
Charles elsket å jakte og gå tur med spanielene sine. Han var en beskytter av vitenskapene og grunnla Royal Mathematical Society i 1684. Men kanskje hans største kjærlighet var vakre kvinner. Blant sine elskerinner regnet hanHortense Mancini, hertuginne av Mazarin,Moll Davis,Barbara Palmer, hertuginne av Cleveland,Louise de Kerouaille, hertuginne av Portsmouth, og mest kjent av alle, Nell Gwyn.
Charles giftet seg med en portugisisk prinsesse, Catharine av Braganza i 1662. Ekteskapet viste seg å være kjærlig, men ufruktbart. Charles fikk barn med noen av sine mange elskerinner, men ingen med sin kone.
Kongens siste sykdom
1. februar 1685, i stedet for å gå med spanielene sine som vanlig i St James’s Park, en park hvis konstruksjon han selv hadde finansiert, dro Charles, plaget av et bensår, kanskje sekundært til gikt, på en vogntur. Den natten gikk han til sengs, sov urolig og våknet rundt klokken 07.00.
Charles ga «det frykteligste skrik» og utviklet kramper, blekhet og målløshet. Legene hans var snart til stede. De blødde ham 16 oz (450 ml eller omtrent en halvliter); de satte ham i kopper, skremte ham og ga ham blemmer med kantarider; de ga ham emetics, cathartics og klyster. De blødde ham igjen, 8 oz. Alt før kl. På ettermiddagen ga de ham hellig bitterpulver + sammensatt peonvann + bryonblanding og hvit hellebore.
Dagen etter, tirsdag 3. februar, fikk Kongen nok en krampe. Legene hans foreskrev hellig tinktur 6 time, manna + krem av tartar 6 time, sal ammoniak i antidotal melkevann etter behov, og en julep (en søtet medisin) av svart kirsebærvann + blomster av lime + liljekonvall + pion + lavendel + pulveriserte perler + sukker. De blødde ham ytterligere 10 gram og ga ham blemmer. De fulgte dette med mer mallowrot + byggvann + mandler + melonfrø og bark av alm. Onsdag var en roligere dag, og legene hans mente ikke at ytterligere medisin var nødvendig før om kvelden, da de ga ham hvit tartar + hvitvin + senna + manna + kamille + gentian + muskat, etterfulgt av ånd av menneskeskalle. På torsdagen kom nyhetene om periodisk feber i byen, og de tok profylaktiske tiltak, inkludert peruansk bark + antidotal melkevann + nellik. De ga ham også mer ånd av menneskeskalle, Raleighs sterkere motgift (sterkere fordi den inneholdt flere urter enn noe annet middel), Goa-stein og salammoniakk.
Dagen etter, fredag 6. februar, var hans siste. Han ba legene om unnskyldning for at de var «en samvittighetsløs tid å dø», ba broren, hertugen av York, ikke la stakkars Nelly sulte, og innrømmet at «jeg har lidd veldig mye, og mer enn noen av dere kan forestille seg. Min virksomhet vil snart være ferdig”. Han ba om å få se lyset fra den stigende solen, hvoretter han ble akutt andpusten og ble blødd ytterligere 12 oz. Talen hans mislyktes, han ble bevisstløs, og han døde like før kl.
Følgende post mortem-funn ble rapportert av hans lege Sir Charles Scarburgh:
- På hjernens overflate var venene og arteriene unødig fulle
- Cerebral ventriklene var fylt med en slags serøs materie
- Stoffet i selve hjernen var ganske gjennomvåt av lignende væske
- På høyre side var lungene og pleura godt festet til brystveggen
- Hjertet var stort og fast og ganske fritt for misdannelser
- Lungene ble belastet med blod
- Leveren var livlig i fargen [fylt med blod, det samme var] nyrene og milten
De fleste av disse endringene var sannsynligvis terminale, men opphopningen av blodårene i hjernen og tilstedeværelsen av væske (hjerneødem) tyder på at han kan ha hatt en hjerneinfeksjon, for eksempel en viral encefalitt.
Ryktene på den tiden antydet gift, men kongen var populær og det er ingen bevis for det. Historien om gikt kan stole på, og det kan ha forårsaket nyreskade og funksjonssvikt. Andre har antydet at han hadde det som senere ble kjent somBrights sykdom, som vi nå anerkjenner som et syndrom som kan være forårsaket av en rekke nyresykdommer, som glomerulonefritt, og som vi i dag vil kalle nefrotisk syndrom, med nedsatt nyrefunksjon, perifert ødem og proteinuri (koagulerbar urin som Bright beskrev det). Brights sykdom kunne ha forklart Charless pleurale adhesjoner og kramper, sistnevnte på grunn av uremi, men den ble ofte ledsaget av forstørrelse av hjertet, som ikke ble funnet. Høyt blodtrykk som følge av nyresykdom kunne ha forårsaket hjerneslag, men det var ingen obduksjonsbevis for det. Et forslag om at han døde av kvikksølvforgiftning er basert på tvilsomme antagelser og svake bevis.
Min egen tolkning er vist i figuren under. Det er tydelig at Charles hadde gjentatte episoder med gikt. Såret på foten kan ha vært på grunn av det. Kronisk gikt, ubehandlet, ville nesten helt sikkert ha ført til avleiringer av urinsyre i nyrene og kronisk nedsatt nyrefunksjon. Dehydreringen som legene hans utvilsomt ville ha fremkalt under hans siste sykdom, ved å blø, kutte, skjære, gi ham blemmer, og ved å gi ham en rekke brekninger og rensemidler, ville ha forårsaket akutt nyresvikt, som kunne ha forårsaket akutt posterior reversibel encefalopati-syndrom, som forklarer hjerneødemet som ble funnet ved post mortem.
Kan moderne medisin ha hjulpet?
De mange manøvrene Charles's leger utførte, som blemmer, kopping, scarifying og administrering av purgative og emetiske medisiner, var ment å gjenopprette balansen i den kroppslige kroppen.humor, antatt av galenisk teori å være ute av balanse under sykdommer. Noen av medisinene ble brukt for å motvirke skåldeeffekten av kantarider på urinen. Spirit of human skull, brukt til å behandle kramper, var, ifølge Plinius den yngre, vann hentet fra en kilde om natten og drukket fra skallen til en mann som hadde blitt drept og hvis kropp forble uforbrent. Peruansk bark og Goa-stein ble brukt for å motvirke feber, og førstnevnte kan ha vært effektiv, siden den inneholder kinin.
Imidlertid ville de fleste av disse tiltakene vært ineffektive eller til og med farlige, avhengig av dosene som ble brukt og hvor ofte de ble administrert.
Derimot kunne mye vært gjort i dag for å behandle Charles og ha forlenget livet hans betraktelig, og med god kvalitet.
Hans kroniske gikt ville blitt lindret av medisiner som øker urinsyreutskillelsen eller reduserer produksjonen; akutte anfall ville blitt lindret av ikke-steroide antiinflammatoriske legemidler eller kortikosteroider.
Kronisk nyresykdom kunne vært forhindret med antihypertensiva, håndtert, hvis alvorlig, med nyreerstatningsterapi, dvs. nyredialyse, og til slutt kurert ved nyretransplantasjon.
Men kanskje viktigst for nasjonens historie, kunne Catharines infertilitet ha blitt behandlet. Hadde Charles hatt en arving, ville ikke broren James ha tiltrådt tronen i 1685, og viket for sin protestantiske svigersønn og nevøen William av Oransje, som tok tronen med makt i den såkalte "Glorious Revolution" fra 1688. Engelsk og irsk historie ville ha tatt et mye annet kurs.
Det er sannsynlig at Charles døde av problemer som legene hans på den tiden ikke kunne ha kurert, selv om de hadde visst hva de var og hva som forårsaket dem. Det er imidlertid like sannsynlig at de fremskyndet slutten da den kom.
Charles became king upon his mother's death on 8 September 2022. At the age of 73, he became the oldest person to accede to the British throne, after having been the longest-serving heir apparent and Prince of Wales in British history. His coronation took place at Westminster Abbey on 6 May 2023.What was King Charles III known for? ›
Charles became king upon his mother's death on 8 September 2022. At the age of 73, he became the oldest person to accede to the British throne, after having been the longest-serving heir apparent and Prince of Wales in British history. His coronation took place at Westminster Abbey on 6 May 2023.How is King Charles 3 related to Queen Elizabeth? ›
King Charles III is the first child of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. Upon the death of his mother on Sept. 8, 2022, Charles succeeded her as king of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. His coronation will take place at Westminster Abbey in London on May 6.Why is King Charles being coronated? ›
"Charles became King Charles the moment his mother died, but the coronation is to do with the job and being the monarch in the eyes of all the people," royal historian Robert Lacey told PEOPLE. His wife Camilla, 75, will also be crowned as Queen Consort during the ceremony.Why is King Charles 3 so called? ›
Why is the King known as Charles III? Charles was free to pick his own title when he became King. He could have chosen one of his three middle names – Philip, Arthur or George – but opted for his Christian name, just like his late mother Queen Elizabeth II.What are two interesting facts about King Charles III? ›
- King Charles was born on 14th November 1948. ...
- He became King on 8th September 2022. ...
- King Charles' coronation takes place on 6th May 2023. ...
- King Charles is a keen pilot and diver! ...
- He has founded lots of charities!
They allegedly decided to use in-vitro fertilization in order to see if her eggs were fertile. However, one of the doctors who was involved in the procedure stole both Diana's eggs and Charles sperm. He then supposedly used a surrogate womb in order to bring carry Sarah for 9 months. Sha was born in 1981, allegedly.How far back does Queen Elizabeth's bloodline go? ›
How far does Queen Elizabeth's bloodline go? The bloodline of the current royal family can be traced back some 1,209 years! This covers 37 generations and goes all the way back to the 9th century.What will Prince Charles be called when he is king? ›
He will be known as King Charles III. Charles was nine when he was given the title the Prince of Wales. He's now 74, and ascended to the throne immediately following his mother Queen Elizabeth's death. Charles was the longest-serving heir apparent in British history.Why isn t Princess Anne in line for the throne? ›
The reason for this sequence is a law that says that the firstborn of the incumbent regent will be next in line and, if this is not possible, the throne is passed to the next son, in addition to the fact that Anne is a woman: in the past there was a protocol that when the monarch did not have a male child, the crown ...
Because the British monarchy is a “constitutional monarchy,” the order of succession to the throne is dictated by law; it is strictly hereditary and has long been associated with an “absolute right to rule” for the duration of the monarch's life.What went wrong at the coronation? ›
One major mishap, though, was that the coronation ring was made for the wrong finger. “Something gets lost in translation when they make the request to the goldsmith,” said Farris. Intended for the fourth ring finger, the ring was instead made for the little finger. “So this ring is too small.How much is the crown worth? ›
The Crown Jewels are considered priceless, due to their historic and cultural value. The has been estimated to be worth anywhere from £3bn-5bn by experts, however they have never been officially valued as the Crown has no intention of selling them off.What happens to Prince William when Charles becomes king? ›
Prince William and his wife Catherine are now titled Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and Cambridge, and the king has conferred on them the title of Prince and Princess of Wales. There is also a new title for Charles' wife, Camilla, who becomes the Queen Consort - consort is the term used for the spouse of the monarch.Why is King Charles 3rd facing left? ›
It all has to do with a royal currency tradition that dates back to King Charles II (not to be confused with the current king), which states that new monarchs should face in the opposite direction of their predecessors. This means that King Charles must face left, since Queen Elizabeth faced right.Who is the longest serving monarch in history? ›
Who is the longest-reigning monarch? French King Louis XIV is the longest-reigning monarch, having served as monarch for more than 72 years after taking the throne at age four.How old was Charles when the Queen was crowned? ›
Nearly 70 years ago, on June 2, 1953, 4-year-old Prince Charles watched his mother be crowned as Queen Elizabeth at Westminster Abbey.How rich was King Charles III? ›
Even before his coronation on May 6, Charles now oversees some $46 billion in assets and inherited at least $500 million from Queen Elizabeth, including her castles, jewels, art collection and a horse farm—all of it tax-free.How old was Charles when he took the crown? ›
He is the oldest monarch to ever take the British throne
Charles, now 74, was 73 when he became king, making him the oldest monarch to ever take the British throne. In comparison, Elizabeth was 25 when she became queen and reigned until her death at 96.
In his early 20s, like many other young men, Charles simply wasn't ready for marriage. Not long after he met Camilla, Charles went off to serve in the navy. Camilla probably thought she could wait around forever without ever getting a proposal from the prince.
Before she was taken out of the car, he held her hand and comforted her. "My God, what's happened," Diana then asked him, in what proved to be her final words. "I massaged her heart and a few seconds later she started breathing again.Why was Diana not speaking to her mother? ›
The former butler stunned the packed courtroom describing Diana's mother's alleged comments as “a hate-filled personal attack on the men and their religious beliefs.” According to Burrell, as a result of that call, Diana vowed never to speak to her mother again.What is the oldest royal bloodline? ›
The Danish monarchy is one of the oldest in the world. Queen Margrethe II's heritage can be traced back more than a thousand years to a king believed to be born around year 900. Queen Margrethe II (born 1940), has been Denmark's reigning monarch since 1972.What happens if you have royal blood? ›
Having "royal blood" typically means that a person has ancestry that can be traced back to a monarch or member of a royal family, implying that the person has some degree of nobility in their family history. This doesn't mean that the individual has any kind of privileges in modern society!Are there any descendants of Henry VIII alive today? ›
Henry never acknowledged them as his own, and Mary's husband, William Carey, was recognised as their father at the time. But Catherine's birth, at least, coincided with the dates of Henry and Mary's affair. There are no proven descendants of Henry VIII alive today.What did Charles call the queen? ›
Ten years ago at the Diamond Jubilee, Prince Charles paid a heartfelt tribute to the Queen, calling her “mummy.” And tonight, he repeated this gesture as he paid tribute to the Queen's lifetime of “selfless service” in a speech at the close of her Platinum Jubilee concert.What will William be called when King? ›
Like his father, if William chooses to use his first name he would be known as King William V. As previously stated by a hilarious young student, William the Conqueror was the first King William.What number will William be when he becomes King? ›
') William certainly has the option of choosing a new regnal name when he becomes King (perhaps one of his middle names: Arthur, Philip, or Louis, or George, like his great-grandfather), but if he keeps William, he would be known as King William V.Why is Harry still in line for the throne? ›
Harry was born in 1984 when his grandmother, Queen Elizabeth II, was monarch and his father was heir apparent. His older brother, Prince William, was (and still is) behind their father. Harry became third in succession to Elizabeth's throne.Will Kate Middleton be Queen? ›
Kate will instead be a queen consort, the wife of a reigning king (William, of course). In the role, she will support her husband in his duties, attend engagements, and help with charitable organizations that resonate with her.
Charlotte is also a granddaughter of King Charles III. She is third in the line of succession to the British throne after her father and elder brother, following Elizabeth II's death. Should her older brother - Prince George - have children later in life, the line of succession will fall to them.Can the Queen give the throne to William instead of Charles? ›
Even if the Queen had desired to skip Charles in favor of William, she did not have the power to choose her successor on a whim. The 1701 Act of Settlement is the act of Parliament that determines the succession to the throne and requires that a monarch's heir must be his or her direct successor (and a Protestant).Can Charles abdicate to William? ›
King Charles could abdicate the throne as early as next year, according to a leading astrologer. The Monarch could hand over power to his son Prince William by the early summer, Patrick Arundell predicts. But his sense of duty will compete with his "inner turmoil" the stargazer adds.Will Prince Harry ever be King? ›
In the event of Prince William's death occurring before King Charles's, Prince Harry would still not be the next choice for King, instead that honor would move on to Prince William's eldest son, Prince George.Has any monarch died before her coronation? ›
The Queen's grandmother, Queen Mary, aged 81 was the first Queen to see a grandchild ascend to the throne. However, she died before the Coronation took place.Has a crown ever fallen off at a coronation? ›
At the State Opening of Parliament in 1845, the Duke of Argyll was carrying the crown before Queen Victoria when it fell off the cushion and broke. Victoria wrote in her diary, "it was all crushed and squashed like a pudding that had sat down".Who never had a coronation? ›
If tradition prevails, most of the Queen's personal jewels will be passed on to King Charles III and Queen Camilla. It is speculated that Catherine, Princess of Wales will also receive some of the jewels as she will eventually be Queen.What crown is on the coffin? ›
The Imperial State Crown, set with thousands of precious gems, sat upon the Queen's Royal Standard-draped coffin on a velvet cushion during the monarch's Lying in State.Who can touch the queens crown? ›
There are strict rules surrounding the crown jewels, and only three people in the world are allowed to touch them: the current monarch (that's now King Charles III), the Archbishop of Canterbury and the crown jeweler. For more than 800 years, the crown jewels have lived in the Tower of London.
Kate Middleton's decision not to curtsy to Queen Camilla was a clear indication of her disapproval of King Charles' wife and her mishandling of his coronation, according to sources. While Kate is known for her poised public image, insiders reveal that she is no pushover when it comes to royal politics.Will Harry inherit money from the Queen? ›
So what will Prince Harry inherit from Queen Elizabeth? Representatives told Forbes in 2021 that Harry was not a beneficiary of any of the $100 million left to the royal family by his great-grandmother, the Queen Mother.Will Kate stay queen if William dies? ›
The last person to hold the title Queen Consort was the current queen's mother. When her husband King George VI died in 1952 she was officially re-styled Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother. If William dies before Kate and their son Prince George becomes king, Kate will then become the Queen Mother.Why do kings not wear crowns on coins? ›
As with previous British kings, and unlike the Queen, Charles wears no crown on the circulated coins that feature his portrait. That's because it is tradition that only female monarchs wear a crown on their coins, and if you look back through the coins over the last several hundred years you'll see just that.Why does the Queen look left on stamps? ›
THE design of coins is determined by a tradition going back at least to the time of Charles II that the direction in which the head faces should alternate between the coinage of successive monarchs.How do you address King Charles the Third? ›
For female members of The Royal Family who hold the title Her Royal Highness: "Your Royal Highness" on the first occasion, and then "Ma'am." For male members of The Royal Family who hold the title His Royal Highness: "Your Royal Highness" on the first occasion and "Sir" thereafter.Which monarch ruled the shortest? ›
Tragic Lady Jane Grey is remembered in British history as the monarch with the shortest reign… just nine days. Why was Lady Jane Grey's reign as Queen of England so short? Lady Jane Grey was the eldest daughter of Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk and she was the great-grand-daughter of Henry VII.Who was the oldest monarch to succeed to the throne? ›
The King ascended to the throne at the age of 73, making Charles III the oldest person to become monarch in the United Kingdom. He was born at Buckingham Palace on 14 November 1948, four years before his mother's incredible reign began. King Charles III has distributed Maundy money for the first time in his reign.Who was the oldest monarch to ascend to the throne? ›
|Monarch||Age came to the Throne|
|1.||King Charles III||73 years 9 months 23 days|
|2.||King William IV||64 years 10 months 3 days|
|3.||King Edward VII||59 years 2 months 12 days|
|4.||King George IV||57 years 5 months 16 days|
King Charles III promotions in the military
In 1975, he became Colonel of the Welsh Guards. King Charles III was given command of his own ship, the minehunter HMS Bronington in 1976, after finishing a lieutenant's course at the Royal Naval College Greenwich.
Known as "the Merry Monarch," Charles II was king of Great Britain and Ireland from 1660 to 1685. His political adaptability enabled him to guide hiscountry through the religious unrest between Anglicans, Catholics, and dissenters that came to signify much of his reign.What powers does King Charles have? ›
But the monarch does have a few unique legal privileges. Royal.uk, the official royal website, says the King “retains the right to claim ownership of any unmarked mute swan swimming in open waters”. He also claims dominion over all whales, sturgeons and dolphins in the waters around England and Wales.What did King Charles III inherit from his mother? ›
But as her eldest son, Charles inherited the Queen's private estates—her much-loved castle in Balmoral, Scotland, where she died, as well as Sandringham in eastern England, home to the thoroughbred horse farm known as the Royal Studs.Who married Diana and Charles? ›
The ceremony was a traditional Church of England wedding service. Alan Webster, Dean of St Paul's, presided at the service, and Robert Runcie, Archbishop of Canterbury, conducted the marriage.What did King Charles fly? ›
It was in a dayglo red trainer aircraft known as the Red Dragon that King Charles flew solo for the first time. As the Prince of Wales, Charles made his first flight in the tandem, two-seat aircraft on January 14, 1969, before being awarded his private pilot's licence two months later and his RAF wings in August 1971.How tall is King Charles? › Why was Charles II of England called a black king? ›
Pubs across England called The Black Boy are generally named after King Charles II. It was a nickname coined by his mother because of the darkness of his skin and eyes. King Charles is credited with popularising champagne drinking and yachting in England.Why is King Charles so rich? ›
Charles inherited Balmoral, the Scottish estate where Queen Elizabeth passed away last year, and Sandringham, an estate in Norfolk, from his mother. Balmoral, with 53,000 acres of land, is valued at $100 million, while Sandringham, which includes farmland and rental properties, is worth $315 million.Was Charles II Protestant or Catholic? ›
In 1685 Charles II was succeeded by his brother - James II in England and James VII in Scotland. The new king was a devout and practising Catholic, who wanted to secure the toleration of Catholics throughout his kingdoms and the removal of laws that forbade their full participation in government and public life.Who is more powerful than a King? ›
Emperors are generally recognized to be of the highest monarchic honor and rank, surpassing kings.
A privileged existence
Put simply, British monarchs and their families live so much longer than their subjects for the same reason other subgroups of the population across the globe live longer than contemporaries born in the same year: privilege over poverty.
The sultan of Brunei, Hassanal Bolkiah, is one of the most powerful national leaders in the world. As an absolute monarch and billionaire, he's the country's self-appointed prime minister and controls the state media. He is currently the longest-reigning monarch in the world.Why is Princess Charlotte so rich? ›
Princess Charlotte has been refered as "the richest kid in the world" due to her status as a member of the British royal family, which is one of the wealthiest and most prominent royal families in the world.Who will inherit the Queen's money? ›
Who inherits the Queen's wealth? King Charles is the sole beneficiary of the Queen's wealth, including her £650 million estate. On top of this, she amassed tens of millions of pounds in her own cash and assets, mainly from art and racehorses.Who is the richest royal family in the world? ›
The British Royal Family
As per Forbes, this royal family is worth $88 billion.